View Full Version : Hammond Organs

Jul-28-2007, 07:04
Can anybody here tell me about the Hammond RT-3? Would it be a good practice organ for me, even if I am playing a classic-style organ at synagogue/church?

Thomas Dressler
Jul-29-2007, 23:07
I don't know enough about Hammonds to know what the RT-3 is, but I'm guessing it's one of the ones with drawbars and a pedalboard the goes up to around C or so? I used to practice on one many years ago when I was first learning. I wouldn't say it was all that great, but it was better than nothing. I'd say if you can practice on a real organ, do that, but if it's the only thing, then it's better than nothing!

Jul-30-2007, 06:07
I found this site for a Hammond RT-3 (http://www.nycfarmboy.com/rt3.html). There are sound clips for listening, unfortunately all with chimes. I must admit that I've never heard Arioso by JS Bach with wild vibrato AND chimes ... that's just gotta make JS roll over in his grave ... :nut: lol.

Could possibly be a good practice instrument ... sans the vibratos ... :rolleyes:

Arvin B
Aug-08-2007, 14:40
The Hammond rt-3 is the organ Hammond made with church / classical organists in mind. It has a 32 note concave, radiating pedalboard and a "pedal solo" unit. I'm not sure if the pedalboard is AGO spec., but it's probably close enough for practice.

So it could do for practice, espicially when you keep in mind that Hammonds are considered more reliable than anything else of that era, and they can be repaired thanks to continued interest from fields other than classical music.

But lets also talk about what a Hammond is, and what it isn't. First what it is: IMHO it is an instrument. It produces its own sound via the tone wheels. That is in contrast to something that simply imitates using recordings. And if you like the sound, it can be really quite nice. IMHO it does have a musical quality to it. The pop music world has been recording them for over 50 years now, and they still like them. Same with Jazz. As far as what its not - it's not a good rendition of a pipe organ. It doesn't sound even close, but that doesn't mean it can be used for practice. I have a friend that uses a pedal piano for practice.

Aug-27-2007, 18:13
I don't really care for the hammond organ. I played one when I was a
kid and to me they sound like a toy. The chord organ I had at home
sounded better! Why don't you try a small wulitzer of the same size.
Now they do sound good.
judy tooley:D

Sep-14-2007, 20:36
here are some basic buying and owning suggestions:
1) Do not buy any organ without having the chance to inspect it first !

2) When buying a Leslie, know WHAT you are buying... and that you must also buy a Leslie hook up kit for the organ that matches the Leslie, and a cable...

3) Leslie speakers are not all the same even though they may LOOK the same... some have low rotor only... some have low rotor and upper horn... some have no horn or rotor at all ! Some are solid state... others are tubes... some are single speed... others are two speed...

4) Try to maintain your Hammond Organ yourself... at a minimum, oil it once a year, clean the tube sockets, clean the drawbars... use an Orange Oil polish or similar product on the wood.

5) Buying an organ that has been properly serviced is something you will want to consider... if you are buying from a home owner, then finding a tech in your area that can work with you is VERY important if you do not wish to maintain the organ yourself.

6) Hammond Organs are HEAVY ! Think twice before moving that 300 - 500 lb organ up or down a flight of stairs... always ask... are there steps ? how many ? can you help me move it ? are there any unpaved areas that the organ must be carried over ?

7) Call around to local rental companies or piano stores and rent a set of ROK or similar ORGAN DOLLIES before moving a Hammond Organ... they strap one on each side of the organ, have handles and the wheels "step" down... makes moving a "beast" a LOT easier !

...read the full guide with pics here (http://rover.ebay.com/rover/1/711-1751-2978-71/1?SID=magelDK&AID=5463217&PID=2212781&mpre=http%3A%2F%2Freviews.ebay.com%2FHAMMOND-ORGANS-B3-C3-A100-M3-AND-LESLIE-SPEAKERS_W0QQugidZ10000000004397425)

Sep-22-2007, 22:15
Humm! Impressive! Like I said the hammon I played was much smaller than
the one you show on Ebay. It did sound like a toy because it was so
small. For bass pedals it only had one octive on it. Sad right! The newer
ones like what's on ebay is much larger. I doubt that the hammond I
played ever had even half of a rank in it. Churches of any size deserves
better than what they had. It was way too small. Unlike the organ I
play now with 24 ranks and sounds like a voice from heaven.
judy tooley

Sep-30-2007, 16:54
Is this organ still being used today? I heard some rock groups in the past have used the Hammond organ. Has a majestic sound to it.

Sep-30-2007, 20:32
Of course it is. Especially in jazz music. This is a wonderful instrument, it gives so many possibillites to the player. It has this characteristic sound- when you hear it you know it's hammond :). And the players? For example Jimmy Smith, great jazz musician.

Arvin B
Oct-01-2007, 09:39
Is this organ still being used today? I heard some rock groups in the past have used the Hammond organ. Has a majestic sound to it.

Yes the Hammond B3 is absolutely still being used! Recording studios love them, rock bands love them, and jazz certainly love them.

Jun-05-2008, 21:45
Hi All,

I am new to the forums, joining just last night. I am retired and have just moved from the US to Canada...that was a relief in and of itself. Now I find myself with time to devote to developing a hobby and I have decided to return to a previous love affair with the organ. In youth, I used to play the pipe organ in church. At home, we had a Hammond B3 that my mother used to play and I took lessons on. But once I got to play that big old pipe organ, gee, did I love to rattle the windows of the church playing some Bach!

I was hoping when we moved here to find an abandoned church that was for sale, especially if it had a pipe organ, but that was before the real estate market in the states hit the dumps. Our $500K home sold for only $265K and we couldn't afford to buy so we opted to rent instead.

Now, with only 2 bedrooms, I have taken one of them as my office/studio. I'm about to trade the guest bed for a futon to have even more space.

I am trying to make a virtual pipe organ and have the demo version of Hauptwerk as well as Miditzer and several others. But rather than pile several midi keyboards on top of each other and then get a pedal board, I found a site that said you can modify an electronic or even electric organ to be midi-compatible for under $300. This has a lot of appeal.

I found a rather unique Hammond for sale in our area that a mover is selling. A picture is attached (sorry for the quality, I didn't take the pic) but after searching for over several days, I cannot for the life of me, identify which model it might be.

If anyone may be able to identify it for me, I would certainly appreciate it. I would love to research it further just to see what I might be getting myself into before I commit to purchasing it.

Thanks in advance for your help.

By the way, has anyone tried the Pianoteq virtual piano software yet? I also have that demo version and am going to a demonstration in town next week to see it in action. It is from France and the sound is absolutely AMAZING! From concert grand to harpsichord, to organ sounds, it gives me chills.

Thanks in advance for any assistance.


Jun-06-2008, 03:56
The one in your picture is much newer than the one I played. The one
I played was bought back in the 50's where I went to church then.
judy tooley

Jun-06-2008, 05:13
. . . . .
I found a rather unique Hammond for sale in our area that a mover is selling. A picture is attached (sorry for the quality, I didn't take the pic) but after searching for over several days, I cannot for the life of me, identify which model it might be.

Hi greatcyber,

The model in the picture you supplied is the Hammond Concorde ... there is a better picture (click here) of (http://www.churchmusicservices.net/sitebuilder/images/HammondConcorde/100_1940.jpg) this instrument showing more detail. I've seen them priced on the internet between $2,395 and $3,460 on one site. (USD)

How much is the mover asking for this organ?

Jun-06-2008, 07:25
I guess it's a great deal, as he will sell it and deliver it for only $500!

Thanks so much for your help.

Jun-06-2008, 17:26
Sounds like a super deal ...
Wonder though, how long it has set idle in the movers warehouse?
It may need some TLC to get up and running if that time period of silence has spanned a year or so.

Jun-07-2008, 01:41
Hi KH,

According to the gent at the moving company, the organ has been there less than a year. He also says that it is in very good working order. I plan on going out to see/hear/play it next week. He is motivated to sell as he is coming into his busy season with moves and needs the storage space. He even told me he would "throw in a small organ and/or an upright piano if I would like." I thanked him, but unless he has a midi keyboard sitting around, I sure don't need another organ if I get that monster. As for pianos, well, I have my casio keyboard and with the Pianoteq software, I can play it and have it sound like a harpsichord or even a beautiful concert grand. That program is AWESOME. If you also like pianos, you should get the demo version. It is available at http://www.pianoteq.com (http://www.pianoteq.com).

I tell you, I am like a kid in a candy store. Since you were kind enough to provide me with the model number of the Commodore, I did further research and found a guy in the states who has owner's and service manuals for almost all the Hammond models. I even found 2 guys who both have this model (with the ebony/walnut/chrome) and one told the other how to fix his when some of the keys stopped working...including cleaning the contacts with a special solvent and even using a standard-type eraser if the corrosion isn't too bad.

So, I'm hoping to get 3 boards to insert that will allow each manual and the pedal board to adapt to midi. So I don't think I could be happier.

And, since reading how many on here get to practice an hour a week in local churches, I'm thinking of asking some of the churches in our neighborhood if I might be able to do the same. There are some grand old churches that I'm quite sure have some fabulous organs in them.

On another point, are you familiar with a Danish organist by the name of Carlo Curly? Or maybe it's Carlo Conti (getting old, you know). He used to be very good friends of a couple of my friends when I lived in Atlanta about 15 years ago. He would visit for a month every year. He gave "private" concerts in a few churches for a close group of friends...they'd all go in at night with bottles of wine and he would just lose himself at the keyboards.

Unfortunately, I was never privy to those, but I have heard him play on records (see, an oldie) and he would also play their grand piano at their house. It was quite a privilege.

Jul-17-2008, 18:03
I just had a phone call this morning from the moving company that is selling the Hammond organ that was the impetus for bringing me to this forum in the first place. Now that the company is past their very busy period they have plugged in the organ to make sure that it does, in fact, still work. They told me it does.

Not being able to leave the house for anything other than short period for the past 8 weeks due to having picked up a parasite somewhere, I finally started to get better last week...after losing 20 pounds to "intestinal disfortitude." So they are going to have it all set up and waiting for me to hear it and check out all the stops and drawbars.

As I plan to turn it into a MIDI machine, I'm pretty certain that I will make arrangements to have it delivered as soon as possible. It will be so nice to have two manuals and a full pedalboard again.

I guess I'll have to spring for an external midi controller device and a couple of touch screens since I am almost positive that I will be purchasing Hauptwerk software.

The organ is a Commodore model as KH was kind enough to identify for me. I'm quite excited about it. I had bought a couple of Opcode controllers, but I didn't realize that they are for use with Apple computers and I have a PC.

I know in another thread that KH said that he can't use a laptop due to not being able to touch type on the smaller keyboard. My laptop is a real powerhouse (actually, it is a gaming machine and is almost perfect for my uses) and I agree with the keyboard issue. I can get used to it, but I wound up getting a wireless keyboard and mouse to attach to it, so it isn't any problem for me. It's just nice having a laptop that is more powerful than many folks desktops.

Will keep you informed on my progress.


Jul-17-2008, 18:06
I'm typing and using a laptop now! This is no desk model.
judy tooley

Jul-18-2008, 01:20
Hi Stephen,

Happy to hear that the advice given here has been helpful. How far do you have to travel to see this Hammond? You mentioned (I think) it was in the states, but I'm often wrong ... senior moments ya know.

Indeed, some laptop systems are lots more powerful than a conventional system. Nice find obtaining a wireless standard keyboard to operate that computer. It all boils down to what works for each of us.

Jul-18-2008, 07:15
Right about the computers. I needed to replace the old laptop anyway as we take it when we travel. That way we can keep in touch and use it to watch movies. It has a 17" wide screen monitor.

No, the organ is local; it's about a half hour away. I can hardly wait to check it out. Will let you know.


Jul-18-2008, 23:13
Just got back from trying out the Commodore. Unfortunately, the pedalboard was not hooked up but was sitting next to the organ. The guy at the shop said he couldn't put it in by himself, but there really wasn't enough room for him to have done it anyway.

The organ is dirty, of course, from being in storage and it has one broken tab for some instrumental sound. All of the drawbars work as do the presets.

The ONLY problem I could hear was that no matter which settings were being used out of the six octaves on the lower manual the highest 4 "c" notes sort of "chirped" when played. A piano tech there told me that they had a similar experience during the Jazz Festival and it turned out to be a loose wire that needed to be soldered. They gave me the name and number of an allegedly fabulous organ technician in the area.

I also read where organs that have been in storage probably need to have their contacts cleaned with something (it's called ox something) and that it is strong enough to get the crud off the contacts but not caustic enough to damage them.

So, I am going to call the tech and ask what he thinks. Bottom line, I am still planning on purchasing the organ. I still feel that $500 is a good deal for purchase and delivery. It has built in leslies so I don't need even more extra space for separate speakers, luckily. I know they sound better, but space is an issue for us. I'm going to have the organ delivered next week.

The place was really incredible. It was inside a piano tuner's storage facility and workshop. There were pianos and pieces thereof in just about every configuration you could possibly imagine. Lots of antiques. From what I saw, they know their pianos and restore them with the utmost of care.

Film at 11.


Jul-19-2008, 07:15
Great to hear that things went well, Stephen.
Sounds like this organ really wound up in the best storage place possible. I would shudder to think what kinds of extensive damage could have been incurred at a non musical instrument warehouse. Big difference when musicians or those who truly appreciate musical instruments are the ones doing the moving and storing.

Contact points can be fussy - especially when they are not used for an extended period of time. De-Oxit might be the contact solution you may have read about - I've heard of it being used for this purpose on older electronic instruments.

Years ago as an Allen Organ road technician, I used a newer dollar bill to clean the contact points when I had nothing else to use on a service call.

Jul-19-2008, 11:14
.... (it's called ox something) and that it is strong enough to get the crud off the contacts but not caustic enough to damage them.


I serviced my Yamaha last month using "electric contact cleaner", that's all I could find in the RSA. Worked like a charm.

Jul-19-2008, 20:23
KH, yes it was De-oxit that I read about using. jvhldb, thanks for the input. I'm going to see what the organ tech feels would be the best solution for the problem. The bottom line, of course, is to get all of the keys in working order without "chirping." It was really a strange sound...and obnoxious. Stephen

Aug-01-2008, 02:18
Today, it arrived at long last.

http://byfiles.storage.live.com/y1p-0rCliUdDTplQyGyVwAERmTpTw2GcJeKjbuX85evUFyj1DfMHtR t9zWIvwF55uhT

It's too bad that the drivers forgot to load the bench onto the truck. I won't get that until next week some time. Doesn't it firgure? Now, if I can only find that organ tech's name that they gave me a couple of weeks ago I'll set about having it serviced.

I'll keep you updated as to how it goes turning this into a Midi beast.


Aug-01-2008, 05:59

Impressive picture - I mean the organ looks like new with all the chrome pieces. The whole organ looks in very good shape.

Bummers about the bench - you could fake it with a picnic table bench and some pillows ... :crazy:

Aug-01-2008, 12:55
It looks great. Looking forward to hear you play it.

Aug-01-2008, 20:15
Thanks guys. I think it is going to be a fun project...either that or a lesson in Extreme Frustration. But, thanks to CT's postings of all the PDF music it will be fun to dive in once I can actually sit on something that straddles the pedals.


Aug-02-2008, 20:44
That's a very interesting looking Hammond. Are there any features that distinguish it from the "classic" Hammond type, sound wise?

Aug-02-2008, 20:50
Other than the built in "poly-syntheses/percussion" (boy, is that dated or what?) it does sound quite a bit like the B3 I learned on. I can't really play it yet because of a problem with 5 of the "C" notes. 4 on the lower and the high C on the pedalboard "chirp" instead of play the note. When I bought it, they thought it was from a loose wire. I'm waiting to get the organ tech's number and have it thoroughly serviced before I start "modifying" it.


Oct-02-2008, 06:16

Any progress update on this project?

Oct-02-2008, 19:56
Funny you should ask... Just 2 days ago I decided to take the back off, lift the top up and fold down the "innerds." I then used the de-oxit to clean up most of the contacts. Since that didn't help with the chiprping c's, I sent another email to the piano storage place from which I purchased the organ and once again asked for the info for an organ tech. They responded yesterday with the name and number of a tech but then told me that they only "know" of him but have no personal experience with him and have never met him so they couldn't vouch for his expertise. They wished me luck.

I have a call in to him and hope to have him out at his earliest convenience to give me his opinion. I'm sure we'll start with a good cleaning and oiling and go from there. As soon as the c's are fixed then I will start with the modification process to turn it into a midi machine (sorry Hammond). My software packages can make waaaaaaaaaaayyyyyyyyyyyy better sounds than the organ. If it turns out that once I start to use midi with it that the original Hammond sounds go away, I can always use "emulated Hammond synths" from one of about a dozen packages I have now amassed.

I'll surely keep you posted as the progression continues. I'll take a pic of the bench later on. It is in keeping with the style of the organ, but I think it is definitely "unusual" in appearance.

Thanks for asking.

Corno Dolce
Oct-02-2008, 20:08
Aloha GC,

Since you're talking about hammonds, listen to this lass and her *midied* hammond:



CD :):):)

Oct-02-2008, 20:24
Hi CD,

I REALLY appreciated hearing that. We had a B-3 at home when I was little and that is what I learned on. We had the huge separate cabinet leslie and added a "rhythm ace" to it. My mom always wanted to add a "string base" to it but never got around to affording it.

My Hammond has the string base but only an internal Leslie.

Me thinks I'm going to have a blast with this project! http://www.online-thecatsmeow.com/images/Emoticons/player_smilie.gif

BTW, did you ever get that Modart Pianoteq program?

Corno Dolce
Oct-02-2008, 20:55
Aloha GC,

Glad you liked Barbara Dennerlein. She's my and my Lady's fave hammond stylist.

Thanx for asking me about the Modart Pianoteq program. I have been so busy with work, domestics, and other projects on my plate. So, thanx for reminding me - its still on the agenda for acquisition and learning :cool::cool::cool:


CD :):):)

Oct-02-2008, 22:09
CD, glad to be a memory jogger.

Corno Dolce
Oct-02-2008, 22:18
Aloha GC,

I do verily and truly appreciate your most magnanimous and thoughtful gesture of sending a compressed file. May I take a *raincheck* on that please? Thanx.


CD :):):)

Oct-23-2008, 06:27
I suggest the first thing you do before even attempting to start the organ is oil the generator. The generator turns at fairly high speed, and I have met several that were really in need of new bearings because of neglecting the lubrication. Hammond generator oil is readily available, even on eBay.

PS - it's not a sound I care for, except in blues.

Jan-04-2009, 02:45
Hi Stephen,

Well, it's been a while since your last update:rolleyes:. And I'd like to hear more about your project. Actually, I do have some questions.

After turning it into a MIDI machine, are you going to *remove* the original Hammond sound somehow?

What do you actually mean by a MIDI machine?

How's the unusual bench working you;)?

I've been planing to get myself a used (yeah, economics comes first...) keyboard and turn it into a poor substitute (yeah, economics again) of Hammond organ. There's this B4 software available and I think I might get that for myself. Unfortunately, it's not all that easy to find used keyboard here. Furthermore, there's matter of some kind of drawbars and the rest of *switches* controller. Of course, I could controll it all with the computer mouse but the inconvenience... Original Hammond controller costs nearly $400. Looking for a alternative way. Any thoughts?

Cheers and good luck with the beast

Jan-05-2009, 20:21
Hi Mat,

Well, I really haven't started to work on the Hammond conversion too much yet (also economics). I am not quite sure about exactly what will be the best route for me and until I find a good organ tech to give me an opinion I am kind of at a stand still.

I also have the B4 software which makes my casio sound just like the Hammond B3. Since there is an internal Leslie speaker in the Hammond I think it would be silly to remove it. But as for the other internal sounds, I was thinking about just putting a computer inside the Hammond and controlling the sounds with software. There are connectors, I think they are called MOP56, or something similar, but can be found by reading MIDI forums which will allow you to use the switches on the computer to trigger MIDI control changes, etc.

Since I really wanted to get pipe organ sounds, it might just be easier to use an internal computer for this. To control different stops, couplers, etc. I am planning on getting 2 touch screen monitors which will act as virtual stops so I wouldn't be restricted to using a mouse. Of course, I want to make it as easy as possible to change sounds while playing.

Reason has some really nice sound banks. Again, back to economics, if you check out newsgoups, either through your email program (i.e. Outlook) or just get a standalone program, you can get access to all sorts of programs for free. I use giganews.com as my newsreader and the provider is usenet. There are many free sites, but I pay for the premium service (about $20USD/month). That has allowed me to get programs to try to see if they are actually what can be usable for what I want to do. This is also how I download movies and just hook my laptop up to my plasma tv and watch movies that way.

Since I have this problem with the organ which makes some of the "c" notes on the lower manual and one on the pedalboard not work, but rather "chirp" I have this sneaking feeling that it will be expensive to fix. Yet one tech told me that it might be as simple as a loose wire to fix that problem. I have used De-oxit on the contacts to clean off the crud as the organ was in storage for a while, but that didn't fix the problem.

If it turns out that it will cost more than $500 to repair the Hammond, then I think that putting a computer in and using that for ALL of the internal sounds would be a wiser choice for me. I did purchase a midid foot controller that has 2 swell shoes as well as 10 foot switches which can be used as couplers or for selecting different sound banks.

Since several of the tabs are loose and would need to be replaced that is part of my dilemma. If it doesn't cost too much to fix those, then I will go ahead and do that. If that is the case, then I would still have the function of the original Hammond and it's sounds as well as the option of using software driven sounds via the computer.

Let me go through my bookmarks and find the midi forums which I have been researching and I will post the links here and provide you with a better understanding of what I am talking about. But from what I remember, a MOP unit is around $99USD and would control one keyboard. So I would need 3: one each for the manuals and the pedalboard. External midi controllers can be purchased for ease of changing sounds and I am definitely going for easy and not complex. But I do plan on cutting away the fabric which covers the speakers and enlarging the opening where the swell shoe is to make room for the midi foot controller. This will give me 3 swell shoes which will control swell, great and crescendo.

I'm looking to see if I can find push button pistons knobs and will drill holes between the manuals to add these. Then, of course, I would need to get yet another MOP unit to enable these to "talk" to the software.

Check my profile and feel free to email me with specific questions and I can go into a little more detail and provide you with some of the "tricks" I have used to get where I am so far.

I also have found 2 programs (freeware) called Organ Tool and Organizer http://www.organtool.nl/ which allow you to set presets, but you still need to select with a mouse.

Have a good one.

Oct-21-2009, 03:06
I've been playing about inside the Concorde for the past couple of days. It's amazing how time flies. Here I have had this organ for over a year and am only now getting around to fiddling with it. But I went off in too many directions at once, what with all of the virtual progs and my other keyboards and then an audio/visual project took almost 6 months of my time.

For the life of me, I cannot find anywhere to oil the generator in this organ. I know the Leslie also needs to be oiled as it squeals a bit when I turn it on. It also doesn't always work without my giving it a little push from the back. Geez, this thing is filthy inside! All kinds of crud in there. I found a site that shows how to oil the tone generator for a one switch model, but the innards don't look the same in the Concorde. There is only an off/on switch, no start/run switch. Frustrating!

But back on the music computer using Hauptwerk (free) I discovered that at some point I downloaded the Brescia, St. Carlo sample set and it is soooo nice.

Oct-22-2009, 20:39

I've got a PDF document called The Hammond B3, C3, A100 disassembly & restoration manual for non-technicans. It's a step-by-step guide with lots of detailed pictures. There are few pages about the generator and putting oil on it. I'm not sure if it also includes your particular model, but maybe you could find it useful in some way.

If you're interested, PM me.

Good luck!

Organ Matters
Apr-12-2010, 14:05

My 1937 Hammond E has the problem that when one turns Run on, the Starter stops and one cannot hold it on for another 5 seconds. Does anyone know the answer?

Incidentally it has woodworm and I haven't the time or space to treat it properly. Is there anyone in the UK who might be interested in this instrument?

Best wishes

David P

Desmond Crawford
Apr-13-2010, 04:43
Hello everyone.

I'm new here, and found this thread. My Hammond is an RT-2 originally. It has been upgraded to 3 series specs with smooth drawbars/Hammond percussion and AO-28 preamplifier/RF filtering and new tonewheel generator capacitors, along with discrete component replacement (resistors, caps, wiring, etc) just to be safe- after all, 50+ year old wiring and components can fail at the worst imaginable times. Tonally it is up to what a 1970's era B-3 sounds like. When I obtained it, the price was wonderful (FREE! to good home...) and it had
two features that I liked- a Pedal Solo Unit for 4' to 32' stops, and an honest to gosh 32 AGO pedal clavier. For some weird reason I seem to "find my feet" better on a 32 than a 25 flat pedal clavier. After refinishing the console and the pedal clavier, and installing a Hammond Solovox model L to it, I will have what I think is better than a B-3, but that's just my opinion!

These organs have a sound all their own, that even the best of "clonewheel" and software copies just can't entirely nail down. And they work wonderfully for jazz/blues/rock and gospel. Whether they fit in other genres is a question of application and taste. I have heard Motown standards such as "Walkin' The Dog",
"What I Say", "Stop! In The Name Of Love" and
"Superstition" played in true bluegrass fashion with all
traditional acoustic instruments, and, mirabile dictu! it
not only worked, it sounded great! I love all instruments, but I hesitate to categorize them to a genre without a fair trial.

There is a caption that appears before the end credits of the movie "Star Trek III- The Search for Spock"
It reads:

"The Human Adventure Is Just Beginning."

It always is.

your compatriot on the prairie,

Mark, a.k.a. "Desmond Crawford, theater organist"